beginnings of the science of Embryology in
century literally “open
the door” to the science of Teratology.
Birth detects have genetic, maternal and environmental causes. The mechanisms
whereby these causes induce aberrant development remain elusive. In modern technology,
few animal models for human birth defects which may lead to better understanding
of the human condition. They are being adopted to identify cellular and biochemical
events in teratogenesis.
Possible effects of Drug action on Pregnancy or its outcome
- Failure of ovulation
- Interference with transport
- Abnormal or no implantation
- Indirect damage to embryo
- Direct damage to embryo or fetus.
Factors Determining Teratogenicity
Type of Drug
- Level and duration of dosage
- Maternal modulation of dosage
- Access to the conceptus
- Developmental stage at time of dosage
- Disposition within the conceptus
- Susceptibility of species and individual